Chronic Kidney Disease

The National Kidney Foundation KDOQI guidelines define Chronic Kidney Disease as:

  1. Kidney damage for at least 3 months, as defined by structural or functional abnormalities of the kidney, with or without decreased GFR, manifest by either:
    • Pathological abnormalities;or
    • Markers of kidney damage, including abnormalities in the composition of the blood or urine, or abnormalities in imaging tests
  2. GFR < 60mL/min/1.73 m for at least 3 months, with or without kidney damage.

CKD and Renal Replacement Therapy

  1. Keith DS, Nichols GA, Gullion CM, Brown J, Smith DH. Longitudinal Follow-up and Outcomes Among a Population With Chronic Kidney Disease in a Large Managed Care Organization. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(6):659-663. doi:10.1001/archinte.164.6.659. (Only 2% of CKD patients progress to need RRT) Download
  2. Eriksen, B. O., and O. C. Ingebretsen. “The progression of chronic kidney disease: a 10-year population-based study of the effects of gender and age.”Kidney international 69.2 (2006): 375-382. ( Again progress from CKD to complete renal failure is rare 4% compared 51% chance of death) Download

Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD)

  1. Torres VE, Harris PC, Pirson Y: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Lancet  2007; 369:1287-1301.

  2. Alper SL: Let’s look at cysts from both sides now. Kidney Int  2008; 74:699-702.

  3. Doulton TW, Saggar-Malik AK, He FJ, et al: The effect of sodium and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition on the classic circulating renin-angiotensin system in autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease patients. J Hypertens  2006; 24:939-945.

  4. Pei Y, Obaji J, Dupuis A, et al: Unified criteria for ultrasonographic diagnosis of ADPKD. J Am Soc Nephrol  2009; 20:205-212.

  5. Grantham JJ, Chapman AB, Torres VE: Volume progression in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: The major factor determining clinical outcomes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol  2006; 1:148-157

  6. Johnson A, Gabow P: Identification of patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease at highest risk for end-stage renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol  1997; 8:1560-1567

  7. Pirson Y, Chauveau D, Torres VE: Management of cerebral aneurysms in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease: Unruptured asymptomatic intracranial aneurysms. J Am Soc Nephrol  2002; 13:269-276

  8. Torres VE, Wilson DM, Hattery RR, et al: Renal stone disease in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis  1993; 22:513-519.

  9. Torres VE, Bankir L, Grantham JJ: A case for water in the treatment of polycystic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol  2009; 4:1140-1150
  10. Gattone, V. H., Sinders, R. M., Hornberger, T. A., & Robling, A. G. (2009). Late progression of renal pathology and cyst enlargement is reduced by rapamycin in a mouse model of nephronophthisis. Kidney international, 76(2), 178-182.
  11. Shillingford, J. M., Leamon, C. P., Vlahov, I. R., & Weimbs, T. (2012). Folate-Conjugated Rapamycin Slows Progression of Polycystic Kidney Disease. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 23(10), 1674.

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